2014-10-14 | Աշխատատեղեր
UNFPA Local Consultant



Local Consultant to develop

prenatal sex selection prevention guidelines for medical professionals


Post Title:                  Local Consultant to develop prenatal sex selection prevention guidelines for medical professionals

Project Title:              ARM2R21A

Duration:                    20 days within one and half month period

Starting Date:            12 November, 2014

Duty Station:             Yerevan, Armenia



According to official statistical data, starting from 1993 the sex-at-birth ratio in Armenia has been 110-120 boys to 100 girls, while the accepted normal biological ratio is 102-106 boys to 100 girls. In other words, in the last decade in Armenia fewer girls and more boys have been born. In order to check one possible cause for this skewed ratio, sex selective abortions, UNFPA initiated a study. The study found that 0.8 per cent of 900,000 Armenian women, around 7200 women, of reproductive age have had a sex selective abortion in the last five years. This means that on average each year Armenia potentially loses around 1400 future mothers. Families with son preference are six times more than families with daughter preference (10 times more in rural areas and four times more in urban areas).

The experience of other countries with a similar problem shows that there can be bitter consequence to this phenomenon, such as: increased crime rates; trafficking of women; raising migration of men; etc. However, as Armenia has its own peculiarities and the situation is unprecedented for the country, a separate study was required to shed light on the potential consequences. So in 2012-2013 UNFPA conducted an in-depth analysis of sex-at-birth (SRB) imbalances in Armenia and provided projections of the possible consequences of the skewed sex ratio for the country.

According to the new study all the three preconditions for sex selection are met in Armenia: 1) the patriarchal structures of Armenian society create a social imbalance among children and tend to strongly favor boys over girls; 2) prenatal technology allowing future parents to know the sex of their child in advance of birth and abortion are easily accessible across the country; and 3) average family size has rapidly decreased, and fertility now is well below replacement level.

Continued skewed sex-at-birth rates will result in almost 93,000 “missing” women or gender gap by 2060. Skewed sex-at-birth ratio will have negative impact on marriage and may also be cause for further out-migration. Thus, because of skewed sex ratio, Armenia’s population will reduce by additional 80,000 inhabitants (it corresponds to the annual number of births over two years) by 2060.


To develop guidelines, based on UNFPA studies regarding the problem of prenatal sex selection Armenia, UNFPA paper on international best practices for the prevention of prenatal sex selection, as well as similar guidelines developed by other countries affected by skewed sex-at-birth ratio, for medical professionals, such as:

a)    Obstetricians/gynecologists;

b)    Ultrasound specialists;

c)    Family doctors;

d)    Family Planning Units’ Midwives/Nurses;

for prevention of prenatal sex selection in Armenia.

The guidelines are intended for training of and as a reference for above-mentioned medical professionals throughout Armenia. 


Profile of consultant

  • Advanced university degree in Obstetrics and Gynecology;
  • Proven experience (at least 5 years of progressive professional experience) in the area of reproductive health, family planning;
  • Proven successful experience in developing of evidence based publications, guidelines, reports, advocacy materials;
  • Ability to perform tasks and fulfill responsibilities within the fixed time-frames;
  • Experience of work with international organizations, UN Agencies will be a strong asset;
  • Familiarity with UNFPA studies regarding skewed sex-at-birth ration in Armenia will be a strong asset;
  • Good analytical and communication skills;
  • Excellent knowledge of Armenian;
  • Fluency in oral and written English will be an asset.

Work setting

Total duration of the contract is 20 days within two month period. The consultant will work in a team with a consultant on gender issues, and in close collaboration with UNFPA “Strengthening Sexual and Reproductive Health” Project Office and UNFPA Communication Assistant.


Duties and Responsibilities

Under the overall guidance of the UNFPA Assistant Representative and the direct supervision of the UNFPA “Strengthening Sexual and Reproductive Health” Project Coordinator, and in collaboration with gender issues consultant, the National Consultant will:  

  1. Review UNFPA studies on prenatal sex selection in Armenia.
  2. Review the latest evidence based health resources (e.g. existing guidelines, books, periodicals,  etc) related to prevention of prenatal sex selection.
  3. Develop guidelines for prevention of prenatal sex selection in Armenia for medical professionals. The guideline should include but are not limited to the following sections:

-       What is prenatal sex selection: global and local perspectives;

-       What are the personal and national consequences of prenatal sex selection;

-       What are the main target risk groups from medical professionals’ perspective, and how to work with each of them;

-       How to identify act upon potential cases: practical exercises/examples;

-       other

  1. Include in the guidelines information about the issue of prenatal sex selection in Armenia, who are the target risk and stakeholder groups from medical professionals perspective, and how to work with them to prevent prenatal sex selection. The guidelines may also contain audiovisuals. The guidelines should have a summary of no more than one page, and a list of corresponding references for the materials used.
  2. Submit to UNFPA the final electronic version of guidelines edited, proofread, and formatted for printing; the report should use Armenian Unicode fonts; preferred font types are Sylfaen, GHEA Mariam, and GHEA Grapalat.
  3. The Consultant is encouraged to address other issues relevant to the above scope of work, which may improve the quality of the assignment and might contribute to the achievement of the above described project objectives.


Expected Deliverables


Upon the completion of consultancy assignment, the consultant should provide to UNFPA the developed guidelines for prevention of prenatal sex selection in Armenia for medical professionals, a report on literature review (in Armenian) and final report (Armenian) on activities.  All reports should be submitted in hard copy and electronic version in common software application.


The Consultant is obligated to provide with the assignment related outputs:

  • Report describing methodology and sources (literature review) for above mentioned topics for guidelines development -  7 days after commencement of the assignment;
  • Draft guidelines for prevention of prenatal sex selection in Armenia for medical professionals - in 20 days after commencement of the assignment;
  • Finalized guidelines – one month after commencement of the assignment.
  • Final report  - one and half months after commencement of the assignment.

Any draft reports and other documents produced by the Consultant will be discussed and cleared with UNFPA before finalization.

Remuneration/Salary:  Commensurate with skills and experience.


Payment schedule

Payment will be conducted in two installments as per the deliverables outlined below:

1st installment - 40% - Report describing methodology and sources (literature review) for above mentioned topics for guidelines development;

2nd installment – 60% upon completion of all works described in this TOR and final satisfactory evaluation and certification of works completed by UNFPA Armenia CO.


Application Procedures

Interested candidates are requested to submit a CV to barfyan@unfpa.org by October 31, 12:00. Please mention “Prenatal sex selection prevention guideline consultant: medical professionals” in the subject line of the e-mail message.

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