After the 1992 independence, the Republic of Armenia signed and ratified a number of international fundamental agreements, treaties and conventions, thus committing itself to create such conditions which will provide for the respect towards the obligations proceeding from those international documents. Corresponding to the Charter of the United Nations “all members, in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance with the present Charter” (Charter of the United Nations, article 2, point 2 ). Correspondingly, the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia expresses this idea in its article 6 in this way: “The international treaties shall come into force only after being ratified or approved. The international treaties are a constituent part of the legal system of the Republic of Armenia.”
Becoming party to the international human rights documents, the Republic of Armenia has assumed certain obligations. For example, becoming party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Republic of Armenia has been obliged to protect and provide for the freedom of movement, equality before the law, the right to a fair trial and presumption of innocence, freedom of thought, conscience and religion, freedom of opinion and expression, peaceful assembly, freedom of association, participation in public affairs and elections, and protection of minority rights. This unequivocally certifies that the issues concerning human rights, that is to say the creation and protection of necessary conditions for the realization of the rights and freedoms of people is the direct responsibility of the Republic of Armenia.
The obligation to protect, promote and ensure the enjoyment of human rights is the prime responsibility of States, thereby, conferring on States responsibility for the human rights of individuals. Many human rights are owed by States to all people within their territories, while certain human rights are owed by a State to particular groups of people.
Essentially, most of the treaties don’t have any executive power. In some countries the international treaties have supremacy over the state legislation; in many countries treaties are given a status of constitution and in a number of countries only certain provisions of the given treaty are reflected in the state legislation.
Within UN system there exist also a number of treaty and extra-treaty mechanisms to control the realization of the human rights international standards and to discuss the complaints on the human rights violations. The latter controls the realization of the fundamental international treaties on human rights. The created separate committees consist of independent experts who act individually but not as representatives of their governments, though they are elected by the representatives of the State Parties. The principal functions of the treaty-monitoring bodies are the investigation of the reports presented by the State Parties and the discussion of the complaints on the human rights violations. On 18 June 2007, the Human Rights Council adopted a new Complaint Procedure to address consistent patterns of gross and reliably attested violations of all human rights and all fundamental freedoms occurring in any part of the world and under any circumstances.
Open Invitation to Special Procedures
A standing invitation is an open invitation extended by a Government to all thematic special procedures. By extending a standing invitation States announce that they will always accept requests to visit from all special procedures.
Voluntary Pledges and Commitments
The election of the members of the Human Rights Council (HRC) was held by the United Nations General Assembly during its 60th session, on 9 May 2006. In support of their respective candidacies Member States provided their Volunaty Pledges and Commitments to the Secretariat.
Here is the pdf version of Voluntary Pledge by Armenia.
Universal Periodic Review
UPR is a unique process which involves a review of the human rights records of all 192 UN Member States once every four years. The UPR is a State-driven process, under the auspices of the Human Rights Council, which provides the opportunity for each State to declare what actions they have taken to improve the human rights situations in their countries and to fulfil their human rights obligations.
For more information about UPR of Armenia, follow the link.
- Human Rights in General
- OHCHR – Southern Caucasus Regional Office
- OHCHR Management Plan 20121-2013
- Human Rights News Related to Armenia on OHCHR website
- Country Visits by Special Procedures
- Human Rights Documents on Armenia
- Universal Declaration on Human Rights
- An Historical Record of the Drafting Process
- United Nations Human Rights page
- Office of High Commissioner for Human Rights
- UN Human Rights Council
- Human Rights in Action